Jaswant Singh Chail, 20, faces three charges, which include intending to injure or alarm the Queen under the Treason Act. The charges follow an incident on December 25, 2021, at Windsor Castle, the Metropolitan Police said.
Scotland Yard said Mr Chail, from Southampton, has been charged with an offence under Section 2 of the Treason Act, 1842, which is “discharging or aiming firearms, or throwing or using any offensive matter or weapon, with intent to injure or alarm her Majesty”.
He has also been charged with threats to kill and possession of an offensive weapon.
Nick Price, head of the Crown Prosecution’s Special Crime and Counter Terrorism Division, said it has authorised the Met to charge Mr Chail “after he was arrested in the grounds of Windsor Castle on 25 December, 2021 carrying a crossbow”.
He added: “Mr Chail has been charged with making threats to kill, possession of an offensive weapon and an offence under the 1842 Treason Act.
“The Crown Prosecution Service reminds all concerned that criminal proceedings against Mr Chail are active and that he has the right to a fair trial.”
Mr Chail has been remanded in custody and will next appear before Westminster Magistrates’ Court on August 17.
Under the 1842 Treason Act, it is an offence to assault the Queen, or have a firearm or offensive weapon in her presence with intent to injure or alarm her or to cause a breach of peace.
In 1981, Marcus Sarjeant was handed a prison sentence under this section of the Treason Act after he fired blank shots at the Queen while she was riding down The Mall in London during the Trooping the Colour parade in 1981.
He was jailed for five years after pleading guilty.
The last person to be convicted under the separate and more serious 1351 Treason Act was William Joyce, also known as Lord Haw-Haw, who collaborated with Germany during the Second World War.